This tutorial shows how you can set up an Ubuntu 14.10 (Utopic Unicorn) desktop that is a full-fledged replacement for a Windows 桌面, 即. that has all the software that people need to do thethings they do on their Windows desktops. The advantages are clear: you get a 安全 system without DRM restrictions that works even on oldhardware, and the best thing is: all software comes free of charge.
Ubuntu 14.10 will by default start the new 团结 desktop ver 7.3.1 which requires that your hardware supports 3D acceleration,however you can also switch to Ubuntu 2D mode in the log on screen. If your hardware does not support 3D acceleration or you don't like Unity,you can still switch back to 2D version or download one of the countless alternatives.
I want to say first that this is not the only way of setting up such a system. 有很多方法的实现这一目标，但这是我采取的方式. 我不会发出任何保证，这将为你工作 ！
To fully 替换 a Windows desktop, I want the Ubuntu desktop to have the following software installed:
- The GIMP - free software replacement for Adobe Photoshop
- Shotwell Photo Manager - full-featured personal photo management application for the GNOME desktop
- 铬 - 谷歌's open-source browser
- Flash Player 11
- FileZilla - multithreaded FTP client
- 雷鸟 - email and news client
- Evolution - combines e-mail, 日历, address book, and task list management functions
- aMule - P2P file sharing application
- Transmission BitTorrent Client - Bittorrent client
- Vuze - Java Bittorrent client
- Empathy IM Client - multi-platform instant messaging client
- 谷歌 Earth
- Xchat IRC - IRC client
- Gwibber Social Client - open-source microblogging client (推特, Facebook, 等）。
- LibreOffice Writer - replacement for Microsoft Word
- LibreOffice Calc - replacement for Microsoft Excel
- Adobe Reader
- GnuCash - double-entry book-keeping personal finance system, similar to Quicken
- Scribus - open source desktop publishing (DTP) application
声音 & Video:
- Amarok - audio player
- Audacity - 免费, 打开源, cross platform digital audio editor
- Banshee - audio player, can encode/decode various formats and synchronize music with Apple iPods
- MPlayer - media player (video/audio), supports WMA
- Rhythmbox Music Player - audio player, similar to Apple's iTunes, with support for iPods
- gtkPod - software similar to Apple's iTunes, supports iPod, iPod nano, iPod shuffle, iPod photo, and iPod mini
- XMMS - audio player similar to Winamp
- dvd::rip - full featured DVD copy program
- Kino - free digital video editor
- Sound Juicer CD Extractor - CD ripping tool, supports various audio codecs
- VLC Media Player - media player (video/audio)
- MiroPlayer - media player (available for i386 systems only)
- 图腾 - media player (video/audio)
- Xine - media player, supports various formats; can play DVDs
- Brasero - CD/DVD burning program
- K3B - CD/DVD burning program
- Multimedia Codecs
- Bluefish - text editor, suitable for many programming and markup languages
- Eclipse - Extensible Tool Platform and Java IDE
- VirtualBox OSE - lets you run your old Windows desktop as a virtual machine under your Linux desktop, so you don't have to entirelyabandon Windows
- TrueType fonts
- Read-/Write support for NTFS partitions
- Synaptic Package Manager
- gdebi Package Installer
Lots of our desired applications are available in the Ubunturepositories, and some of these applications have been contributed by the Ubuntu community.
As you might have noticed, a few applications are redundant, forexample there are two CD/DVD burning applications in my list (Brasero, K3B). If you know which one you like best, you obviously don't need toinstall the other applications, however if you like choice, then of course you can install both. The same goes for music players likeAmarok, Banshee, Rhythmbox, XMMS or browsers (Firefox, 歌剧, Chromium).
I will use the username howtoforge 在本教程中. Please 替换 it with your own username.
2 Installing The Base System
The installation of the base system is easy as 1-2-3 because theUbuntu installer doesn't offer a lot of options to choose from, so you cannot go wrong.
下载 Ubuntu 14.10 desktop edition iso image from http://www.ubuntu.com/download/ubuntu/download, burn it onto a CD, and boot your computer from it:
Select your language and click on the 安装 Ubuntu button to start the installation:
On the next screen you see a few requirements for the Ubuntu 14.10installation (the system should have at least 7.1 GB available drive space and should be connected to the Internet). Please check the Download updates while installing 和 安装此第三方软件 (this will install the software necessary to process Flash, MP3, and other mediafiles) checkboxes and click on 继续:
Now we come to the partitioning of our hard disk. 通常 擦除磁盘并安装 Ubuntu is a good choice, unless you need custom partitions and know what you're doing. 擦除磁盘并安装 Ubuntu will create one big / partition for us:
Select the hard drive that you want to use for the Ubuntu installation and press 继续
Then choose your time zone:
Change the keyboard layout, if necessary:
Type in your real name, your desired username along with a password,and click on 继续:
之后, Ubuntu is being installed. This can take a few minutes,so be patient:
After the installation, you will be asked to reboot the system.Click on 现在重新启动:
Your new Ubuntu system starts. Log into the desktop with the username and password you provided during the installation:
默认情况下, Unity 3D (Ubuntu) will be started. If you want to use Ubuntu 2D, please select it (the system will remember your choice, so the nexttime you log in, Ubuntu 2D will be started unless you make another selection) and login (If Ubuntu 被选择, but you hardware does not support 3D acceleration, yourdesktop will have no effects).
This is how your new Ubuntu Unity desktop looks:
Now the base system is ready to be used.
3 Update The System
Now it's time to check for updates and install them. You can startthe Update Manager by opening the 短划线, typing in Update Manager into the search bar and clicking on the icon:
的 Update Manager tells you which updates are available (you can click on the Check button to refresh the list). 单击 Install Updates to install them:
If there are any updates available you can install them by clicking on Install Updates and entering your password confirm administrative rights. When the update is complete,click on 关闭 (if a new kernel was amongst the updates, a system restart is required to make the changes effective. If this is necessary, 你会看到 现在重新启动 按钮. Click on that button to restart the system.). The system is now up-to-date.
4 Flash Player And Java
If you have checked the 安装此第三方软件 checkbox during installation Flash Player should already be installed on the system but Java has to be installed manually.
To check this, open Firefox and type about:plugins 在地址栏中. Firefox will then list all installed plugins, andit should list the Flash Player (version 11.2 r202) plugins among them.
We will install Java a few steps below.
5 Inventory Of What We Have So Far
Now let's browse all menus to see which of our needed applications are already installed (open Dash and click on the second icon at its bottom - The label Installed displays all application already on your system):
You should find the following situation ([x] marks an application that is already installed, whereas [ ] is an application that is missing):
[ ] The GIMP
[x] Shotwell Photo Manager
[x] LibreOffice Draw
[ ] Opera
[ ] Chromium
[ ] Flash Player
[ ] FileZilla
[ ] Evolution
[ ] aMule
[x] Transmission BitTorrent Client
[ ] Vuze
[x] Empathy IM Client
[ ] Skype
[ ] Google Earth
[ ] Xchat IRC
[ ] Gwibber Social Client
[x] LibreOffice Writer
[x] LibreOffice Calc
[ ] Adobe Reader
[ ] Scribus
声音 & Video:
[ ] Amarok
[ ] Audacity
[ ] Banshee
[ ] Gnome-MPlayer
[x] Rhythmbox Music Player
[ ] gtkPod
[ ] XMMS
[ ] dvd::rip
[ ] Kino
[ ] Sound Juicer CD Extractor
[ ] VLC Media Player
[ ] MiroPlayer
[ ] Xine
[ ] K3B
[ ] Multimedia-Codecs
[ ] Bluefish
[ ] Eclipse
[ ] VirtualBox
[ ] TrueType fonts
[ ] Java
[x] Read/Write support for NTFS partitions
[ ] gdebi
[ ] Synaptic Package Manager
So some applications are already on the system. NTFS read-/write support is enabled by default on Ubuntu 14.10.
6 Install Synaptic
Before you install any additional packages it's best to firstinstall the Synaptic Package Manager since it easily lets you download multiple packages at a time. Open aterminal (短划线 > 终端) and enter
sudo apt-get install synaptic
再一次, open a terminal and edit /etc/apt/sources.list...
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
..., enable the Utopic partner and Ubuntu Extras repositories (if they are not already enabled)while you are at it:
## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from Canonical's
## 'partner' repository.
## This software is not part of Ubuntu, but is offered by Canonical and the
## respective vendors as a service to Ubuntu users.
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu utopic partner
deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu utopic partner
to make 突触 display packages from third-party repositories.