Linux

Your Questions About Linux Server Configuration Step By Step

George asks…

sftp configuration step-by-step procedures?

We are trying to set up a number of Solaris, Linux, UnixWare and HPUX servers with sftp servers to support secure file transfer out of these servers. What are the step-by-step procedures to configure the sftp servers? For example, what do I need to do to enable sftp? do I need t install any keys on the servers? do I just need a regular unix login/password or do I need something special for authentication? are there any difference among the different unix flavors? it is expected that custom sftp clients will be developed. Are there anything special to set up on the client side? Thanks.

Martin King answers:

SFTP is typically run over SSH protocol so you need to configure and enable sshd (ssh daemon) on the UNIX servers. Typically, on most UNIX flavors, the configuration files are located at /etc/ssh. The file you need to configure is ssh_config. The keys and such for the sshd should have been already generated for the host (depending on the flavor, most Linux distributions do this automatically at install time). All you need to do is simply enable the sshd at the appropriate runlevel. How to enable the sshd varies depending on the flavor of UNIX, under Linux, there are tons of runlevel script editors available, like ksysv. Last but not least make sure the port configured (default is 22) is not filtered by any iptable filter or other firewall that you run.

You should be able to use your UNIX login to use all of these services like SFTP, SSH, SCP etc., once the sshd is up and running.

Good luck!.

Thanks.
-Arul

Paul asks…

What should be the next step in configuring a Linux Somba Server?

I have a project for my school that I have to install Linux Somba Server on two computers and then connect them creating a network. I have set up the computers (Connected the power, mainframe, keyboards, mice, and monitors). I am about to install Linux on the two computers. Are there any configurations that should be done during the setup?

Martin King answers:

That depends on which Linux distribution you're using, but most will set Samba up for you right out of the box.

Here is some info for Ubuntu:

https://help.ubuntu.com/community/SettingUpSamba

David asks…

Apache HTTP Server Help...?

Hi there, I have a functioning LAN network and wish to use Apache HTTP Server to host an intranet so that all computers will have the intranet available.

I visited the Apache website and could not make ANY sense of it.

How do I download it?

Please also provide instructions on how to post my intranet into which file, because I am a complete FOOL at computers and really need good guidance to set up Apache.

Many thanks
!: PLEASE WOULD SOMEONE ALSO TELL ME WHAT THIS HOW TO DOWNLOAD THESE 'GZ' AND 'BZ2' FILES. HOW DO I DOWNLOAD APACHE OR LIGHTTPD ON MY PC? ITS SOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO COMPLICATED =//

Martin King answers:

Nothing complicated about it... If you know *why* you're doing *what* you're doing.

I'm going to assume that with "intranet" you mean a "local network internet website", and you want to use Apache to set up a web server. If that is not what you mean, let me know and this answer will be *poof* gone again. 🙂

I'm also going to assume the systems on your network use Microsoft Windows™ - if you were a Linux/*Nix user, you wouldn't be asking this question.

So.

Step one: go to the Apache.org web site, and make sure you're on the HTTP Server pages. Here's a link to a direct download page: http://httpd.apache.org/download.cgi

Choose the one called "Win32 Binary without crypto (no mod_ssl) (MSI Installer): apache_2.2.10-win32-x86-no_ssl.msi" and download it to the server you want to install it on.

After downloading, log into the server (remote access, Sneakers Net), and run the MSI by double clicking. This will install the files and allow you to set the options; install the program as a Service - that way, it'll run in the background, and will start automatically when the server restarts.

When it's all done, you need to figure out whether you want the web server to be available through IP or a site name - the second option is the easiest, but requires a DNS server to be configured; for each intranet web domain, a DNS entry must be created.

I'm going to use IP addressing, because it requires the least amount of work...

If you've figured it out, on the web server PC, open the Start menu, and go to Apache HTTP Server 2.2 | Configure Apache Server | Edit the Apache httpd.conf Configuration file. This will open Notepad, with a long, long file inside.

Scroll down a little until you find the line "#Listen 12.34.56.78:8080"
Below that, type Listen: [the server's IP address]:8080

Scroll down until you see a line that starts with "ServerName:"; behind it, type [the server's IP address]:8080

A couple of line lower you'll find the line that starts with "DocumentRoot:". By default, this points to the WWW subfolder in your Apache installation; if you want the web files to be placed elsewhere, type the full path to the right folder, and make sure to replace all with /. The path MUST be enclosed in double quotes.

A little further down still you'll find a line that starts with "<Directory...". Change the path in there to be the same (copy/paste) as what you set as DocumentRoot.

Save, close, and open the Start menu, and go to Apache HTTP Server 2.2 | Control Apache Server | Restart

You now have a working, but empty intranet website, where you can start placing web pages.

If you also want to have server side scripting available, get a copy of PHP...

Let us know if this is what you had in mind - if so desired, I'll also give instructions to make PHP work on the system.

Thomas asks…

IP in linux?

I am working as a broadband internet field engineer. In windows 98 or xp i can easily put ip, subnett, dns, gateway in my network places>view network con.>local area connection>properties>TCP/IP.but i dont know where i put ip address in LINUX, please help me step by step to give u best answer.

Martin King answers:

Computers may be assigned a static IP address or assigned one dynamically (via DHCP). Here I will explain the steps needed to assign an IP address to your NIC.

Choose one of the following methods:
Command line :

/sbin/ifconfig eth0 192.168.1.3 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 192.168.1.255
GUI tool : You can use the GUI tool /usr/bin/neat - Gnome GUI network administration tool. It handles all interfaces and configures for both static assignment as well as dynamic assignment using DHCP.

Console tool : /usr/sbin/netconfig (Only seems to work for the first network interface eth0 but not eth1,...)

The ifconfig command does NOT store this information permanently. Upon reboot this information is lost. (Manually add the commands to the end of the file /etc/rc.d/rc.local to execute them upon boot.) The command netconfig and /usr/bin/neat make permanent changes to system network configuration files located in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ , so that this information is retained.

The Red Hat configuration tools store the configuration information in the file /etc/sysconfig/network. They will also allow one to configure routing information.

# File: /etc/sysconfig/network
# Static IP address Configuration:
NETWORKING=yes
HOSTNAME=my-hostname # Hostname is defined here and by command hostname
FORWARD_IPV4=true # True for NAT firewall gateways and linux routers. False for
# everyone else - desktops and servers.
GATEWAY="XXX.XXX.XXX.YYY" # Used if your network is connected to another
# network or the internet.

# Gateway not defined here for DHCP.

# Or for DHCP configuration: in the same file /etc/sysconfig/network
NETWORKING=yes
HOSTNAME=my-hostname # Hostname is defined here and by command hostname
# Gateway is assigned by DHCP.
# File: /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
# Static IP address configuration:
DEVICE=eth0
BOOTPROTO=static
BROADCAST=XXX.XXX.XXX.255
IPADDR=XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
NETWORK=XXX.XXX.XXX.0
ONBOOT=yes
# OR for DHCP configuration:
DEVICE=eth0
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=dhcp
Used by script /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifup to bring the various network interfaces on-line.

To disable DHCP change BOOTPROTO=dhcp to BOOTPROTO=none
In order for updated information in any of these files to take effect, one must issue the command:

root# service network restart

Mark asks…

how can i set up a minecraft server?

Martin King answers:

Follow these steps:
1) Download the server software from the Minecraft website. The program comes in three separate versions for Windows, Mac OS and Linux systems. You can download and use the server software without a Minecraft account, though you will not be able to connect unless you purchase the game.

2) Place the server software file in a new folder on the system. You may run the program from any location, but placing it in its own folder ensures the server files generate in a centralized location. Do not run two server files from the same directory, as the generated files may conflict and cause malfunctions.

3) Run the downloaded file. A window will appear and the server will generate a new world, which may take several minutes. Terrain files and server configuration setting files will appear in the server file's directory. Users may begin connecting and playing as soon as the server window displays "Done."

4) Open the new "server.properties" file in a text editor program to change the server's basic options. Enter the desired values after a property to alter its behavior. Many properties use "true" or "false" as accepted parameters. The "hellwold=" property changes the default terrain to the Nether. "Spawn-monsters=" controls whether enemy mobs spawn, while "spawn-animals=" controls whether neutral mobs appear. Change "white-list=" to "true" to confine access to the server to a specific list of users.

5) Open the "banned-players.txt" file and enter the names of any users you want to prevent from connecting to the server. You may do the same with IP addresses in the "banned-ips.txt" file. If you turn on the "white-list=" option in the server properties file, enter allowed user names in the "white-list.txt" file.

6) Give other players the system's IP address to allow them to connect. If you want to connect to the server from the machine running it, type "localhost" into Minecraft's multiplayer connection box.

7) Type "stop" into the server's command box and press "Enter" when finished playing to save the server's contents and close the program. If you close the window without using the "stop" command the server may not save correctly.

^_^

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